Anatomical pathology| Volume 55, ISSUE 3, P362-374, April 2023

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NTRK-rearranged spindle cell neoplasms: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 13 cases with peculiar characteristics at one of the largest institutions in China

Published:January 12, 2023DOI:


      NTRK-rearranged spindle cell neoplasms (NTRK-RSCNs) represent an emerging group of rare tumours defined using molecular means. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no large series of reports about this tumour in the Chinese population in English full-text articles. Herein, we present 13 NTRK-RSCNs with peculiar characteristics. Ten of the 13 (77%) patients were children without sex differences. The tumour locations included six trunks, four extremities, two recta, and one small bowel. The histological morphology included four lipofibromatosis-like neural tumour (LPF-NT)-like, eight malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST)/fibrosarcoma-like, and one extremely rare myxofibrosarcoma-like pattern. Immunohistochemically, all cases were CD34, pan-TRK and TRK-A positive, SOX-10 negative, and H3K27me3 intact. S-100 protein expression was identified in 11 of 13 (85%) cases. Genetically, NTRK1 rearrangements were considered positive (7/13, 54%) or suspicious for positivity (6/13, 46%) by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing confirmed NTRK1 fusions with a variety of partner genes, including five LMNA, three TPM3, one SQSTM1, three novel CPSF6, IGR (downstream PMVK), and GAS2L1 genes. Interestingly, the last tumour concurrently harboured a second EWSR1-PBX1 fusion, which has never been reported. Four patients developed local recurrence and two of them suffered metastasis. In our study, NTRK-RSCNs had peculiar fusions that displayed unusual or complicated clinicopathological features. Histological clues and IHC helped streamline a small subset of potential candidates. Although FISH is a powerful technology for identifying NTRK rearrangements, RNA-/DNA-based NGS is recommended for highly suspected cases in which FISH signal patterns are not discernible as classic positive patterns, particularly if targeted therapy is considered.

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